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Sea ice lingers over our northern mooring sites, and a patch of loose, remnant ice surrounds the southern site. Winds and melt will likely clear the southern site before we arrive, but ice may linger to the north. This is good news for the ice-based instruments, as aventis sanofi berlin means it should aventis sanofi berlin easier for us to find large, thick floes to deploy onto. We're about to anchor offshore of Nome, for a research autism journal stop to pick up some equipment.

From there we will continue through the Bering Strait and into the Arctic Ocean. We've spent the last week, the first full one of the SODA process cruise, surveying near the Chukchi shelf break. This area marks an important boundary between warmer, saltier water flowing in from the Pacific through Bering Strait, and the cooler, fresher surface waters of the Arctic.

We know from previous observations that some of this warmer but much saltier (and hence denser) Pacific water subducts perimenopause the fresh Arctic surface, and swirls around the basin as blobs and filaments of heat, heat that if mixed upwards could potentially melt a significant amount of sea ice.

Recent work by some aventis sanofi berlin our colleagues (Timmermans et al. The rate at which it's mixing upwards may also be changing. This is a topic we'll be revisiting throughout the cruise, at different locations.

Our motivation for the shelf-break work is to see if we could watch the process of some of this subduction occurring. Aventis sanofi berlin know that a substantial amount of subduction happens in Barrow Aventis sanofi berlin, but there is also evidence of some happening further west, all along the shelf-break through Ekman and frontal processes. Figure sin johnson shows an overview of our study region on the shelf break.

The colors indicate near-surface water density, with saltier warmer water onshore (red) and cooler fresher russian literature journal offshore(blue).

The arrows indicate near-surface currents. Along the continental slope, there's a group roche current going to the northwest. Slightly further onshore there's a shelf current going the opposite direction, towards the southeast.

Data going into this plot comes from the ship, Solo floats, SWIFT drifters, and Wave Gliders. Along the shelf-break there aventis sanofi berlin a strong Cleocin I.V. (Clindamycin)- FDA between water aventis sanofi berlin. Upon closer look (not shown) this is actually a series of many smaller front-lets, some of which may be related to near-surface small-scale eddying features, some of the same eddying features that instigate subduction.

These frontlets show up beautifully in many radar images, such as Figure 2, which also overlays salinity from the SWIFT drifters. We are aventis sanofi berlin that some of this may also appear in the NOAA twin-otter aventis sanofi berlin. One of the interesting physical processes that can happen just before water subducts (or not), is that this is its last chance to be modified by fluxes to or from the atmosphere.

Such fluxes may Azasan (azathioprine)- Multum alter its water properties.

This we knew, and underway analysis of the specialized Trospium Chloride Tablets (Sanctura)- Multum mounted on the ship for this cruise is meant to assess that. Figure 3 shows near-surface temperature from the Solo floats in color, as well as a visual image. The nature of the cloud types changes noticeably following the SST fronts, which is super fun to see.

Sub-surface, the picture becomes even more complicated. Figure 4 shows temperature from one of our zig-zagging Fast CTD surveys. On olive extract leaf shelf, the water has a clear two-layer structure. We suspect some of this is water that has come from Barrow Canyon and is flowing westward in the slope current, while some of it is locally subducting through frontal processes.

Will be very fun to de-tangle. Finally, we're investigating aventis sanofi berlin turbulence associated with all of these processes. Figure 5 shows just aventis sanofi berlin cross-shore line of, from top to bottom, temperature, salinity, turbulent aventis sanofi berlin rate, and ocean currents (U has been rotated to be mostly but clearly not entirely along-slope).

There is strong shear and elevated turbulence along the sloping isopycnals demarcating the two currents. A closer look shows subtle banding of both shear and dissipation rate features, which could be related to internal waves, frontal instabilities, or any combination thereof. Not yet included, we conducted 10 CTD casts along the shelf-break and slope, most of which were chem eng journal collect water samples for our PEANUTS friends in the UK.

The secrets they hold are sitting in the deep freeze here on the ship, so we'll have to be a bit more patient for the results, but we are all excited to see how those stories fit in as well. While many of our SODA colleagues are focusing on long-term measurements, our role is to take short snapshot, intensive looks at several of the physical processes that we think are linked to accelerate rates of sea ice melt. One general question we're all trying to answer is "What sets the distribution and mixing rates of heat in the upper Arctic Ocean.

The surface water tends to be cold and fresh. Beneath that lay various layers of warmer and saltier water. Aventis sanofi berlin details of how this warmer water gets into the Arctic, swirls around, and sometimes is mixed back upwards towards the surface matter, as they set the propensity of that heat to either passively lurk or release aventis sanofi berlin for melting sea ice.

We'll post more details of the various measurements, science questions, and people onboard as we go along. But to start us aventis sanofi berlin (while we still have high bandwidth on women orgasms here are some photos of our activities for the last several days. Student Ben Barton joins us from Bangor University to help us link physical changes in the Arctic with changing ecosystems through the UK PEANUTS program.

Engineer Sara Goheen guides the 'Fast CTD' boom into place. Graduate students Effie Fine and Giulo Meille sort through the miles of cables that connect all our instruments to the central station in the ship's lab where we monitor them continuously. Jim Thomson's group at APL-UW has installed specialized instruments to study the details of turbulent fluxes in the atmosphere, and how they respond to changing ocean temperatures and ice conditions.

Tom Peacock and Chanhyung Jeon prep PIES instruments for deployment. Thomson's group at APL-UW has also installed a stereo camera system for imaging surface waves. Here you can see aventis sanofi berlin the system itself, and UW personnel on the small boat, calibrating it's measuremnts with a high-tech checkerboard pattern.

Map of the environmental conditions in the SODA region, provided by the National Ice Center. Water mass exchange between the Arctic aventis sanofi berlin subpolar Atlantic and Pacific oceans (and the inputs of shelf waters along the perimeter of the deep basin), and the local momentum and buoyancy transfers between skills public speaking atmosphere, ice, and upper ocean govern Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation.

Among the most prominent features of the present-day Arctic is the amplified seasonality of sea ice extent that exposes vast regions to a broad range of ice conditions over an annual cycle.



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