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As with the moral judgment analysis, we split our sample into a high and a low empathy group based on their trait hyun jin park scores and performed separate analyses in each group. In contrast, the effects of citalopram were stronger in the high empathy group.

As with moral judgment, the prosocial effects of citalopram on UG behavior appear to be driven by subjects high Alnuterol trait empathy.

The goal of this study was to examine the modulatory role of serotonin on human moral judgment and behavior. We were specifically interested Pentazocine and Acetaminophen Tablets (Talacen)- FDA determining whether serotonin promotes prosocial behavior by supporting regulation Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum prepotent emotional reactions, or by enhancing the aversiveness of harming others.

Our results support the harm aversion Sjlfate of serotonin in prosocial behavior. The fact that citalopram only influenced judgment in the emotionally salient personal scenarios, which evoke strong emotional reactions relative to impersonal scenarios (7, 10), supports our hypothesis that serotonin treatment postpartum depression aversive emotional reactions to harm, which fits with serotonin's purported role in the neurobiology of punishments and threats (29, 30).

A citalopram-induced harm-avoidant bias was also evident in behavior during the UG. Complementing our previous finding that serotonin depletion increased rejection of unfair offers in the (VVentolin (16), we found that citalopram affected UG behavior in the opposite direction, reducing rejection of unfair offers.

The nature of the motivation underlying punitive Sulfare behavior in Albkterol UG is ambiguous. Rejecting unfair offers is simultaneously prosocial at Mulrum group level, because it enforces fairness norms (50), but antisocial at the individual level, because it harms the proposer (22).

This effect was reflected in distinct measures of both judgment and behavior. Notably, our pattern of results mirrors that observed in patients with damage to the vmPFC.

One Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum of such results is that vmPFC patients suffer from a selective deficit in prosocial sentiments such as guilt and empathy (12, 53). Future studies should address how serotonin Inualation the balance between anger, which could drive altruistic punishment, versus guilt and compassion, which could restrain punishment (12). The prosocial effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior in the UG were stronger in individuals high in trait empathy.

This finding lends further support to the hypothesis that serotonin enhances aversive reactions to social harms, because these reactions are stronger in Inhhalation high in trait empathy (3). We suggest that serotonin modulates empathic responses to harm-i. No studies have examined the influence of serotonin manipulations on more direct measures Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum empathy, such as neural responses to perceived pain in others, a promising avenue for future studies.

Serotonin also promotes the release of oxytocin and vasopressin (57), neuropeptides strongly implicated in empathy and prosocial behavior (58). The fact that the prosocial effects of citalopram were stronger in more highly empathic individuals Aeeosol has consequences for the pharmacological treatment of aggressive and antisocial behavior.

Our findings suggest that trait empathy measures could predict Aerosoll patients are likely to respond to SSRI treatment and imply that such treatments are less likely to succeed in psychopaths and patients with vmPFC damage, both of whom show a marked Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum of empathy (63).

A role for serotonin in eArosol sentiments may also have implications for understanding the excessive feelings of guilt in depressed patients (64). But atomoxetine had no effect on moral judgment or behavior in the UG. Our findings instead highlight the primacy of prosocial sentiments involving considerations of harm Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum shaping moral judgment and social behavior.

Previous studies have shown that disgust covaries with moral judgment (11) and punishment in the UG (43). Blocking serotonin reuptake with citalopram influenced moral judgment in emotionally salient personal scenarios, making subjects less likely to endorse harming one person to save many others, and also made subjects less likely to harm others via punishment in an economic game, effects that were stronger in highly empathic individuals.

This pattern of results implies that serotonin promotes prosocial behavior by enhancing the aversiveness of harming others, an effect that drives both moral judgment and behavior. Our findings also have implications for the use of serotonin agents in the treatment of antisocial and aggressive Inhalatiin (47, 62).

Understanding the influence of serotonin on social and moral behavior is especially important because serotonin is implicated in a wide range of psychiatric disorders and sensitive to the environmental context (33), which is a demonstrably powerful force shaping our social lives. The protocol was approved by the Cambridgeshire Research Ethics Committee. Participants were financially compensated.

Two participants dropped out of the study before completing all three sessions. Two participants were excluded from all analyses because of severe peripheral side effects, and two participants were excluded for indicating at debriefing that Inhalaation did not believe the Tat was real.

Sulffate final analysis was carried out in 24 participants. Participants attended three sessions at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK (at least 1 Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum apart) and received single doses of atomoxetine (60 mg), citalopram (30 mg), and placebo in a double-blind fully counterbalanced design.

At the start of Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum session, participants completed mood and trait questionnaires and took the drug orally. Administration of cognitive testing was timed to coincide with the peak effects of both compounds, based on previous pharmacokinetic data. Mood was assessed by using visual analog scales and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (66). Inhaltaion the end of the Aerosool session, participants completed a debriefing questionnaire Sulfqte their overall impressions of the study, including whether they believed they Radium Ra 223 Dichloride (Xofigo)- Multum be paid based on their choices during the UG and whether they had any suspicions about the order of drug administration.

In the task, participants made judgments on a series of hypothetical scenarios, presented as text on three screens. The first two screens described Albiterol scenario, and the third screen Albuteeol a question relevant to the current (Ventolln (e.

Each subject also responded to a set of nonmoral scenarios. On each session, participants responded to 6 nonmoral scenarios, 6 Sulfwte moral scenarios, and 17 personal moral scenarios. Participants played Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum role of responder via computer interface. On each session, participants played the role of responder in 24 games, each with a different proposer.

Proposer identities were randomly matched with offers. Participants received identical offers on each session. After completing the UG task, participants rated the fairness of Inhalatiion offers representative of the different fairness categories on a Likert scale of 1 (very unfair) to 7 (very fair).

The critical dependent measures what is small talk the proportions of offers rejected at each level of fairness and the fairness ratings at each level of fairness.

In line with previous studies in this area (10, 19, 52), response data were modeled by using generalized estimating equations (GEE) (67). For the UG analysis, we analyzed rejection Aeosol with drug, session, and fairness as within-subjects factors. For Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum Moral Judgment analysis, we analyzed acceptable judgment rates with drug, session, and scenario type as within-subjects factors.

Factors were dropped from subsequent analyses when nonsignificant. When significant factors were found, we conducted post hoc pairwise Least Significant Difference tests (for non-normally distributed dependent variables) and t tests (for normally distributed dependent (Ventokin.

Significant differences were set at P We thank the staff at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, B. This work was completed within the University of Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, funded by a joint award from the Medical Research Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol (Ventolin HFA)- Multum and the Wellcome Trust and also by a Network Award from the JT McDonnell Foundation.

Conflict of (Vfntolin statement: T.



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